It is not a fugue played by jazz players. Attempts to integrate jazz and classical music began in the early s almost as soon as the former became recognised as a distinct style of music.
Some ragtime music drew upon classical music, and symphonic pieces such as Rhapsody In Blue link below , by George Gershwin , blended jazz and symphonic music. Igor Stravinsky drew upon jazz for several compositions, such as Ragtime , Piano-Rag-Music and the Ebony Concerto the last composed for jazz clarinetist Woody Herman and his orchestra in link below.
Though few of these examples can be strictly classified as Third Stream as they do not involve improvisation , they do demonstrate that there was widespread mutual interest and appreciation between the jazz and classical traditions. His music has been described as sharing characteristics with that of classical composers such as Delius , Debussy , and Ravel , particularly in impressionistic mood pieces such as Mood Indigo link below , Dusk , and Reflections in D , as well as in more extended composed works such as Creole Rhapsody , Reminiscing in Tempo and The Tattooed Bride.
These tendencies were also shared by his frequent co-composer Billy Strayhorn. Duke Ellington. The Afro-British composer Reginald Foresythe was one of the first musicians to combine the two genres from the early s onwards.
Branding his style "The New Music", his compositions, such as Garden of Weed , Serenade for a Wealthy Widow and the Bach-influenced Dodging A Divorcee were received well by critics but poorly by the British public, who were baffled by its radical style. However, Foresythe's music found a warmer welcome in America, particularly among black musicians, resulting in collaborations with Duke Ellington , Earl Hines and Benny Goodman. Reginald Foresythe. Osie Johnson's cymbal sets the pace in the third movement, subtitled Meter And Metal.
Various brass combinations, sparked by Bernie Glow's driving trumpet, alternate with cymbal breaks. Soon the line of continuity is broken; short chordal outbursts remain, isolated, as if left hanging in silence.
Suddenly the six trumpets in unison announce the theme of the following free fugue which forms the main body of the movement. The tuba starts the fugal ball rolling, and as various groups of instruments enter, the web of sound thickens, and the impending climax becomes inevitable. At this point JJ. Milt Hinton's wonderful bass gives this section a special lift.
This idea having run its course, four final declamations based on material from the first two movements bring the work to an exciting close.
The golden-toned high C that John Ware came up with at half past three in the morning to end the session seemed to me at the time like the final strike-out in a pitcher's no-hit game. John Lewis' "Three Little Feelings" show a side of his musical personality not generally known to those who know him only from his work with the MJ. The instrumentation gave him an opportunity to present a more forceful side of himself and to work with a wider dynamic range than the more intimate level of the quartet would seem to allow.
Without benefit of introduction, three thematic motifs, drawn in solid unison lines, present themselves in quick succession. These three themes, cast in a minor key, emphasize a certain blue-note feeling, in this case through the use of the flatted fifth. As the themes pile up on top of each other one by one, an ominous note is introduced by a timpani and cymbal roll; but this is quickly dispersed by a relaxing trombone counter melody, played by JJ.
Soon Miles enters, playing one of the three motives, a chromatic four-note pattern whose center of gravity is the flatted fifth. Out of this eight-bar statement emerges his first improvisation, disarming in its simplicity and economy, but blending perfectly into the character of the piece. Osie Johnson's strong playing sparks the next section, a powerful, snapping outburst in the brass.
Later against a background of richly voiced lower brass. Miles returns for a short solo, as if reminiscing, and the piece closes with an almost Brahmsian feeling of gravity. The second movement, again featuring Miles, presents John in an even more nostalgic and poignant mood.
An idyllic atmosphere pervades everything, especially in the middle section where John gently extends two measures in such a way as to give them an almost timeless feeling. The undulating movement in the trombones and baritones makes the chord seem suspended in time, while Miles is free to wander about unhampered, as it were. Also listen to the rich tone of Bill Barber's tuba as he underlines the entire piece, blending when necessary with Milt Hinton's bass.
The third movement returns to the minor key and tempo of the first section. A horn call, beautifully intoned by Jim Buffington, introduces the piece. Then a variant of the chromatic motive from the first movement makes its appearance, leading to JJ. A strong climax and a recapitulation of the horn call this time played by all four horns end the piece.
In this movement, John has made particularly excellent use of the timpani, without resorting to mere effects or bombastic noise. These pieces are superb examples of John Lewis' creative talent. In a very simple, unspectacular way, he combines the romantic and the classical in a judicious blending.
His great melodic gift is veiy much in evidence. John has that rare ability to create a melody which is thoroughly conventional, immediately hummable. Above all, this music has that unassailable quality of lightness for which there is no substitute. Giuffre's approach, as indicated above, is quite different. In his own words, "brass instruments in large numbers suggest to me ceremonies of perhaps a royal nature, a sense of excitement, as though something momentous were about to happen.
The stage is set by the timpani, playing a rhythm which, says Giuffre, "suggested Egypt to me, and when the brass enter, I imagined the approach of a great Pharaoh and his court; hence the title. The form of the work is quite original, developing out of the thematic material itself. Different sections feature different groups and material.
Outstanding, for instance, is the magnificent six-part writing for. Another highly interesting moment is the bridge featuring a trio of trumpet, horn and timpani. The difficult high horn part is played with consummate ease by Joe Singer.
All the thematic material is finally gathered together for the final climactic section which ends in a blaze of sound, topped by Bernie Glow's high F. At A. Bernie's infallible accuracy and power nearly lifted the roof off at Columbia's vaulted studios. His keen interest in the Schuller Symphony and his enthusiastic support of the aims of the Society persuaded him to participate in this unusual recording. Among his public appearances, he has been heard as soloist in his own concerto with the Cincinnati Symphony, Eugene Goossens conducting.
The present work developed from this appearance, having been written at the suggestion of Ernest Glover, director of the brass ensemble of the Cincinnati Conservatory, and conducted by him.
Schuller has also performed frequently with jazz groups, including the now famous Miles Davis nine-piece recording group. His first major work was "Toccata For Trumpet And Orchestra," introduced at a Carnegie Hall conceit by Dizzy Gillespie, with whose band John first became known as a pianist and arranger.
He is also an exceptional arranger, most of whose work has been for small combinations. After many years as a featured member of both big bands and small groups, J J. JIMMY GIUFFRE is the only one of the composers in this album to have studied composition extensively; he is, of course, much better known to the jazz public as a saxophonist and especially as a clarinetist. He is one of the musicians associated with the development of a rather unique style of modern jazz on the West Coast, and his new trio is considered to be the brightest and most individual new group to have emerged from this school.
But so rapid has been the progressive intermingling of influences in the jazz and non jazz fields that there exists now a nucleus of musicians—albeit still limited in number—who can combine the ability to read "far out" twelve-tone scores with that prime requisite, the life-force of jazz? This music was performed for the first time at the Brandeis Festival of the Arts in and inspired Schuller's comment about "a new synthesis".
Paul Whiteman employed string sections in his jazz bands in the s, as did Artie Shaw in the s. These musicians had written parts and supported the improvisers. More dramatic attempts to bridge jazz and classical were made by Charlie Parker in and in the s by J.
Johnson , John Lewis , and William Russo. George Gershwin blended jazz and symphonic music in Rhapsody in Blue Although few of these examples can be classified third stream, they demonstrate interest and appreciation for jazz among classical composers. Reginald Foresythe was among the first musicians to combine the two genres, beginning in the s. He called his style "The New Music". Foresythe's music found a warmer reception in America, resulting in collaborations with Ellington, Benny Goodman , and Earl Hines.
Artie Shaw recorded "Interlude in B-flat" in with the unusual ensemble of a string quartet, a jazz rhythm section, and Shaw on clarinet and saxophone. In Johnson toured for a number of months with Davis' sextet of that year, which went unrecorded. Johnson's solo album J. Beginning in Johnson recorded a number of large group studio albums under his name, featuring many of his own compositions and arrangements.
The late s saw a radical downturn in the fortunes of many jazz musicians and Johnson was consequently heard almost exclusively on big band-style studio records, usually backing a single soloist. From the mids, but especially the early s on, Johnson dedicated more and more time to composition. He became an active contributor to the Third Stream movement in jazz, which included such other musicians as Gunther Schuller and John Lewis , and wrote a number of large-scale works which incorporated elements of both classical and jazz music.
He contributed his Poem for Brass to a Third Stream compilation titled "Music for Brass" in , and composed a number of original works which were performed at the Monterey Jazz Festival in the late s and early s. In , he composed a suite in six movements, titled Perceptions , with Gillespie as soloist. In he spent time in Vienna to perform and record his Euro Suite with a jazz-classical fusion orchestra led by Friedrich Gulda. In , a Johnson work titled "Diversions" was commissioned by the American Wind Symphony and performed.
Johnson moved to California to compose for cinema and television. During this period, he played almost no concerts, except in and in Japan, and in in Europe. Despite the low profile, he did record six albums as a leader between and including a trombone duo album with Al Grey and a few albums as a sideman, two with Basie, and on The Sting II soundtrack. Johnson returned to performing and recording in November , with an engagement at the Village Vanguard in New York City. Tours of the United States, Europe and Japan followed as well as a return engagement to the Vanguard in July which yielded two albums worth of material.
While touring Japan in December , Johnson learned that his wife Vivian had suffered a bad stroke, which incapacitated her for her remaining three and a half years of life.
During this period Johnson cancelled all work, devoting his energy to caring for his ailing wife. After her death in , he dedicated an album to her on Concord. A year later the former Carolyn Reid became his second wife, and Johnson began actively performing once again. Following this second comeback in , Johnson's contracts with a variety of record labels, including Verve and Antilles, resulted in five albums as a leader, from small groups to separate brass orchestra and string orchestra recordings, as well as sideman appearances with his leading disciple, trombonist Steve Turre, and the vocalist Abbey Lincoln.
He earned several Grammy nominations during this period.Schuller led a group of musicians in recording the albums Music for Brass () and Modern Jazz Concert (), later collected under one album, The Birth of the Third Stream. The first contained compositions by Schuller, J.J. Johnson, John Lewis, and Jimmy weirganacvertuta.vicroamautrontiobarguecherredarthirooms.infoinfotic origins: Jazz, classical.